UPDATE: It's working! Sort of...
I did a bunch of research on the software side to try to get the camera to ignore the missing lens hardware, but I wasn't able to get it to work. Disabling the image stabilizer error is pretty easy - the "DisableISDriveError" command in the link you shared worked like a charm. However, if it is possible to disable the zoom and focus errors, it's beyond my capabilities.
I ordered a new lens unit ($20 on ebay) and removed the actual lens part, leaving only the CCD, the focus mechanism, the zoom motor, and the first ring of the lens (the one the zoom motor turns). The camera booted up fine, since all its sensors were satisfied.
I broke off the actual focus lens, but the arm still moves around uselessly to keep the camera happy. With that done, the CCD was exposed. Here's some sample footage with the lens just held in front of the CCD.
...and a video.https://drive.google.com/open?id=1Eac0_xPr4jVdNqzofj4eBFzIWeg9KzNf
These were taken in Auto mode, with very poor lighting, so I'd say the new lens is going to be great for low light! I'm hoping once I get the lens secured, I'll be able to focus more accurately. I'm currently having a little trouble mounting it at the right distance from the sensor. 17.5 mm is what I read is correct. Too close and you can't focus too infinity, too far and you can't focus close up. I'll post an update once I get that together. Thanks for your help so far!